http://ras.boxed-rocket.com/menander-new-comedy-and-the-visual-cambridge.php In Kruchenykh especially, the folkloric strata is significant; his concept of 'zaum' or transrational language was later to be described by Dada sound poet Raoul Hausmann as 'an old form of popular and folkloric language' and both Khlebnikov and Kruchenykh openly acknowledged their debt to popular forms. For Kruchenykh poetry was a conscious attempt to return language to its a-rational ground.
It involved him in the open sacrifice of meaning as a constituent of the poem or rather meaning in its restricted semantic sense and the deployment of various 'poetic irregularities' such as clipped words, lexical hybrids, neologisms, and fragmentations. FT Marinetti , the core architect of the Italian Futurist movement, developed a poetic technique called parole in liberta or words in freedom.
It was an attempt at syntactic explosion, at the liberation of the word from all linear bondage and the consequent conversion of page, from a neutral surface holding neutral graphic signs, into a dynamic field of typographic and sonographic forces.
Sound poetry is an artistic form bridging literary and musical composition, in which the phonetic aspects of human speech are foregrounded instead of more. Bob Cobbing (–) — sound poet, visual and concrete poet, DIY printer, and active member of an alternative socio-poetic community in the UK.
In performance Marinetti laid heavy stress upon onornatopoeiac structures. Less interesting, morphologically, than the work of Kruchenykh for in parole in liberta sound is still anchored in a representationality one may think of Marinetti's work as an attempt to find a more basic connection between an object and its sign, a connection predicated upon the efficacy of the sonic as a direct, unmediated vector.
Perhaps the most significant aspect of parole in liberta was its lasting effect upon the poem's visual notation. Marinetti's famous Bombardamento di Adrianapoli , for instance, is a stunning handwritten text of great visual excitement, employing different letter sizes, linear, diagonal and vertical presentations of non-gravitational text, all intended for vocal realization. It marks one of the earliest, successful attempts to consciously structure a visual code for free, vocal interpretation.
It can be safely said that the sonological advances of the futurists have been unfairly eclipsed by the historical prominence that the Dada sound poets have received. Hugo Ball claims to have invented the 'verse ohne Worte' poetry without words which he also termed 'Lautgedichte' or soundpoem. Ball, in a diary entry for , describes the compositional basis for this new poetry: Tristan Tzara is noteworthy for his developmentof a pseudo ethnopoetry realized most successfully in his 'Poemes Negres': Partly based on the earlier work of Henri Barzun, the simultaneous poem stands as an early example of intermedia.
De-fying categorization as either theatre, music or poetry, it emphasized the improvisatory, spontaneous and aleatoric possibilities of multivocal expression. Raoul Hausmann is perhaps the most significant of the Dadasonosophers and largely because of his instrumental advancements in the techniques of notation. Hausmann in developed his 'optophonetics' which used typographic variations in size to indicate proportionate variations in pitch and volume.
Optophonetics is an open code, of low denotation that nevertheless permits a wide range of imaginative interpretation. It is in current use today with many text-sound composers. Perhaps the greatest scope is evidenced in the sound poems of Kurt Schwitters whose phonetic experiments took him into large and small structures alike. His 'Ur Sonata' ranks as one of the longest of all sound poems, whilst 'W' a single letter on a white card, and performed with the full gamut of pitch, tone, volume and emotional intensity must be one of the shortest.
Doesburg's own work appeared under the pseudonym of I. In he published three 'letter-sound images' with the following statement accompanying: This means at the same time the healing of our poetic auditory membranes, which are so weakened, that a long-term phono-gymnastics is necessary! Self-styled in the relatively sparse decade of the forties, Lettrisme, as a 'movement', constituted a particularly creative source of linguistic experimentation. Their poetic strategy was to be based, like Doesburg's, upon an alphabetic renaissance, and the use of a totally new lexicon.
This Lexique des Lettres Nouvelles drawn up by Isou and Lemaitre comprised over entries to be employed as an alphabet of sound in vocal performance. Other members of the group still flourishing were Roland Sabatier, J-B. Arkitu and Jean Paul Curtay. Francois Dufrene , a former member, left the original movement to pursue his own 'ultra- lettrism'. Dufrene's work in many ways culminates the phase of second generation sound poetry; it is charactrized by a vocal purity Dufrene eschewed entirely the attraction and dangers of the tape recorded , an energetic intensity and - in his cri-rhythmes - an intensely somatic base in sub-phonemic units.
Sound poetry prior to the developments of the s is still largely a word bound thing. For whilst the work of the Dadaists, Futurists and Lettrists served to free the word from its semantic function, redistributing energy from theme and 'message' to matter and contour, it nevertheless persisted in a morphological patterning that still suggested the presence of the word. It is Dufrene's especial achievement to have pushed the limits centripetally and to have entered into the micro particulars of morphology, investigating the full expressive range of predenotative forms: Important too, in this light, is the way meaning persists as a teleology even in zaum.
Khlebnikov, for instance, speaks of new meanings achieved through by-passing older forms of meaning, of meanings 'rescued' by 'estrangement'. Ball, too, speaks of exploring the word's 'innermost alchemy'. So word persists even in the state of its own ex-communication throughout the century. It could be said that what sound poetry, up to the exploitation of the tape recorder, did was to render semantic meaning transcendental, as the destination arrived at by the disautomatization of sound perception.
It is this theological contamination, of the meaning, like God, as a hidden presence, that specifies the limits of sound investigation up until the nineteen fifties. With the fifties, however, came the gift of an external revolution: To summarize the several revolutionary capabilities that tape allowed: The tape machine, considered as an extension of human vocalityallowed the poet to move beyond his own expressivity.
The body is no longer the ultimate parameter, and voice becomes a point of departure rather than the point of arrival. Realizing also that the tape recorder provides the possibility of a secondary orality predicated upon a graphism tape, in fact, is but another system of writing where writing is described as any semiotic system of storage then we can appreciate other immediate advantages: Technological time can be super added to authentic body time to achieve either an accelerated or decelerated experience of voice time.
Both time and space are harnessed to become less the controlling and more the manipulable factors of audiophony. There exists then through recourse to the tape recorder as an active compositional tool, the possibility of 'overtaking' speech by the machine. Sound poetry mobilizes a certain technicism to further the cleconstruction of the word; it permits, through deceleration, the granular structure of language to emerge and evidence itself. Phonetic poetry, the non-semantic poetry of the human voice, is more limited in its deconstructional scope, for it accepts the physical limitations of the human speaker as its own limitations.
The tape recorder, however, allows speech - for the firsttime in its history -a separation from voice. The advantages of tape began to be realized in the fifties. The audiopoem utilizes microphones of high amplification to capture vocal sounds on the threshold of audition. In this respect Chopin's work can be regarded in the tradition of lexical decomposition outlined above.
But the audiopoem constitutes a much more fundamental break with the whole tradition of western poetics. Chopin's early work ca. Still connected to the word, these pieces can best be described as technological assaults upon the word.
The word is slowed down, speeded up and superimposed up to fifty times, whilst additional vocalic texture is provided by a variety of respiratory and buccal effects. Later, Chopin discovered and used the 'micro-particle' as the compositional unit of his work, abandoning the word entirely. This marks the birth of 'poesie sonore', which Chopin distinguishes from 'poesie phonetique'. Chopin's art is an art entirely dependent on the tape recorder. In words of two or more syllables, one syllable is almost invariably stressed more strongly than the other syllables.
Words of one syllable may be either stressed or unstressed, depending on the context in which they are used, but connective one-syllable words like, and, but, or, to, etc. The words in a line of poetry are usually arranged so the accents occur at regular intervals, with the meter defined by the placement of the accents within the foot. Accent should not be construed as emphasis.
Two degrees of accent are natural to many multisyllabic English words, designated as primary and secondary. When a syllable is accented, it tends to be raised in pitch and lengthened. When the full accent falls on a vowel, as in PO-tion, that vowel is called a long vowel ; when it falls on an articulation or consonant, as in POR-tion, the preceding vowel is a short vowel. Also called head rhyme or initial rhyme , the repetition of the initial sounds usually consonants of stressed syllables in neighboring words or at short intervals within a line or passage, usually at word beginnings, as in "wild and woolly" or the line from the poem, Darkness Lost:.
From somewhere f ar beyond, the f lag of f ate's caprice un f urled,. The sounds of alliteration produce a gratifying effect to the ear and can also serve as a subtle connection or emphasis of key words in the line, but should not "call attention" to themselves by strained usage.
The relatively close juxtaposition of the same or similar vowel sounds, but with different end consonants in a line or passage, thus a vowel rhyme, as in the words, date and fade.
A pleasing combination of sounds; sounds in agreement with tone. Also, the repetition of the same end consonants of words such as boat and night within or at the end of a line, or the words, cool and soul, as used by Emily Dickinson in the third stanza of He Fumbles at your Spirit. Discordant sounds in the jarring juxtaposition of harsh letters or syllables, sometimes inadvertent, but often deliberately used in poetry for effect, as in the opening line of Fences:.
Crawling, sprawling, breaching spokes of stone,. Sound devices are important to poetic effects; to create sounds appropriate to the content , the poet may sometimes prefer to achieve a cacophonous effect instead of the more commonly sought-for euphony. The use of words with the consonants b, k and p, for example, produce harsher sounds than the soft f and v or the liquid l, m and n.
A mingling or union of harsh, inharmonious sounds that are grating to the ear. Harmony or beauty of sound that provides a pleasing effect to the ear, usually sought-for in poetry for effect. It is achieved not only by the selection of individual word-sounds, but also by their relationship in the repetition, proximity, and flow of sound patterns. Vowel sounds are generally more pleasing to the ear than the consonants, so a line with a higher ratio of vowel sounds will produce a more agreeable effect; also, the long vowels in words like moon and fate are more melodious than the short vowels in cat and bed.
These variations are introduced by substituting different feet at places within a line. Harris that indicated the teleology of the poem as a communal product and a collective experience. In this respect Chopin's work can be regarded in the tradition of lexical decomposition outlined above. Cobbing along with Paula Claire has frequently abandoned the graphic imprint and received 'song signals' from natural objects: Bull A big rampaging angry bull With sharp pointy horns Charges at bright red fences Ripping up the dry brown grass. Sam has written a poem that sounds great. Rain drops like a busted water balloon!
Also called middle rhyme, a rhyme occurring within the line, as in the poem, The Matador:. His childhood fraught with lessons taught by want and misery.
A measure of rhythmic quantity, the organized succession of groups of syllables at basically regular intervals in a line of poetry, according to definite metrical patterns. Mark Sutherland ply the field of unconventional poetic practice in this interview, conducted by Sutherland in December and January Dutton has released five books and four recordings of his solo work recent examples include the CDs Mouth Pieces and Oralizations , but is widely recognized for his ensemble work as well, namely his participation in the Four Horsemen with bpNichol, Rafael Barreto-Rivera, and Steve McCaffery.
Below this interview, you will find six poems by Paul Dutton. Andrew Demirjian participated in ModPo during the fall of Once you start the web-installation poem, it will continue; you can stay with a letter, or move around and spell out your own performative vocabulary.
Robert Sheppard contributed this piece to Jacket issue 9 to mark the occasion of Bob Cobbing's 75th birthday: I visited Bob Cobbing, and thus met my first poet, on November 3 I was still at school, keen to put on an exhibition of concrete poetry. I recognised this as the wilder edge of the new British poetry I had discovered through Horovitz' anthology Children of Albion and Bill Butler's Brighton bookshop. Bob was in it. I listened as they talked and sounded some of the Shakespeare Kaku.
I remained mute, uncertain.