Aulus Vitellius (Kaiserbiographien 9) (German Edition)

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click here Having established the probable sizes of the bookcases and their number on the assumption of niches in the north, south, and west walls and on an upper level , Packer then assumed ten shelves per bookcase, with rolls stored one or two deep on each shelf, and an average diameter of 5 cm per roll. To omit the math, which is provided by Packer, this would produce a total of 20, rolls in the two halls if the rolls were placed one deep on each shelf, or 41, if they were stacked two deep. We may add that this is the number of rolls, not separate works or titles: Thus 41, rolls might represent, say, from five to ten thousand separate works or titles.

Such a number, disappointingly small by our standards, is consistent with comparative figures, and forty thousand rolls would both make an impressive show and be a challenge to organize.

There are, however, many unknowns and variables. There would be sufficient space in the bookcases for fifteen shelves, not just ten; the rolls might have been stacked not two, but three deep; there may have been free-standing bookcases in the hall; and perhaps, when rolled up, the volumes averaged not 5 but 4. These alternative assumptions could increase the capacity of this library to as much as eighty thousand rolls. On the other hand, perhaps the diameter of the rolls averaged 6 cm, shelves were fewer in number, and there were bookcases on only two walls As for the other library buildings, we have almost no information: It is also difficult to know how.

Who Used the Public Libraries in Rome? In assessing the imperial book collection as a whole, probably the best we can do is to assume, or guess, that in the second century the libraries of Rome contained in all more than fifty thousand but fewer than four hundred thousand rolls, and, more importantly, that whatever the actual number was, this was a strikingly large collection for antiquity.

That the builders of libraries, and the authors whose works would be in them, expected at least some members of the public to enter the libraries and use the books is clear enough, although seldom explicitly stated. When we can identify specific users within libraries, they are almost always writers or scholars, connected to the imperial family, or both The one exception is a young man — adulescens quispiam — who joins, or interrupts, a conversation that Gellius and his friends are having in the domus Tiberiana library Gell. He may be imaginary, but even so he reveals that Gellius could conceive of meeting a total stranger in a public library.

This young man is the single such stranger known to us. Our evidence indicates, then, that the public libraries of the Empire could be treated very much as private libraries of the Republic had been: No woman, no slave on his own, no tradesman or craftsman, no administrator seeking public records, is ever mentioned in any public library in Rome Even in the absence of specific positive evidence, however, there are reasons to believe in a rather wider set of users than our few references in literature would indicate.

At least some of the libraries seem to have been used on occasion for. The well-known inscription from the library of Pantainos in Athens restricts the hours of opening and the circulation of books, but places no restrictions on those who could enter and use the library We noticed above an unfamiliar young man in the domus Tiberiana library. It is of course impossible to determine the number of literate persons in Rome, but it is surely not unreasonable to assume that they numbered in the tens of thousands, and that some of those thousands used the libraries at least occasionally.

That need not translate into large crowds in the libraries, of course: Significance of the Libraries. Martial or Juvenal complains of crowded libraries; and the calm, civilized conversations in libraries that Gellius describes certainly imply no great throngs of library users. Despite this, it is not difficult also to imagine non-scholars wandering in, admiring the books and statues, and, at least sometimes, reading books. The art, the architectural decoration, the obvious expense of these buildings, and the probable size of their collections, all indicate that the libraries of Rome were considered as prestigious, and that they were intended to impress.

On the other hand, several indications point in the opposite direction. As we have noted, no library in Rome is an independent building, or the center of a complex of buildings; always so far as we know they are small parts in much larger architectural complexes. No library is ever depicted on any coin, although many other structures are When Augustus lists his building projects in the Res Gestae, he includes the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine and its porticoes, but not the library Mon.

Finally, there does not seem to have been any interest in making texts available to the widest possible public. A glance at the plan fig. This is not to say that the libraries served no purpose. Quite the contrary, they seem to have had several. They certainly had a practical use: At least some, and possibly all, of the libraries provided rooms for recitations, discussions, or both, and we have noted recitations in the Atrium Libertatis and Apollo libraries and discussions in the Domus Tiberiana and Trajan libraries Perhaps most importantly, libraries also had obvious symbolic values.

They enabled the emperor to claim a close association with high culture, and on a broader level they helped establish Rome as a center of culture and a worthy successor of the Greeks. In this regard the decorations, from expensive fittings to statues and, above all, the Greek works of art frequently displayed in or near them, played a role as important, or nearly as important, as the volumes themselves. The imagines of writers of the past, both Greek and Roman, established a kind of.

Map adapted from J. Patterson, JRS , Drawn by Craig Dalton. The very nature of the libraries helped to emphasize that distinction as well: Amici, Foro di Traiano: Basilica Ulpia e biblioteche, Rome, Amici, Atrium Libertatis, in. RendPontAcc, 68, , p. Filippi, Il nuovo tempio del Velabro, in BullCom, 99, , p. Bartoli, Lavori nella sede del senato romano al tempo di Teodorico, in BullCom, 73, , p. Studi in onore di A. Paribeni, 3, Milan, , p.

Bianchi, I bolli laterizi del Foro di Traiano. Il catalogo del Bloch e i rinvenimenti delle campagne di scavo e , in BullCom,. Birt, Die Buchrolle in der Kunst. Blanck, Das Buch in der Antike, Munich, Boatwright, Hadrian and the City of Rome, Princeton, Bosworth, Asinius Pollio and Augustus, in Historia, 21, , p. Brink, Horace on Poetry.

The Letters to Augustus and Florus, Cambridge, Callmer, Antike Bibliotheken, in. Opuscula Archaeologica, 3, , p. Camp, The Athenian Agora. Excavations in the Heart of Classical Athens, corr. Carettoni, I problemi della zona Augusteo del Palatino alla luce dei recenti scavi, in. RendPontAcc, 39, , p. Carettoni, Le costruzioni di Augusto e il. Archeologia laziale, , p. Casson, Libraries in the Ancient World,. Castagnoli, Atrium Libertatis, in. RendLinc, 8, 1, , p.

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BullCom, 76, , p. Cavallo, Libri scritture scribi a Ercolano: Cavallo, Le biblioteche nel mondo antico e medievale, 2nd edn. Cavallo, Testo, libro, lettura, in G. Lo spazio letterario di Roma antica, 2, Rome, , p. Churchill, Ex qua quod vellent facerent: Coarelli, Il tempio di Bellona, in. BullCom, 80, , p.

Coarelli, Classe dirigente romana e arti figurative, in DialArch, , , p. Coarelli, Il Campo Marzio, Rome, Colini, Forum Pacis, in BullCom, 65, , p. Conze, Die pergamenische Bibliothek, in. Degrassi, Inscriptiones Italiae Dix, Public Libraries in Ancient Rome: Dix, The library of Lucullus, in.

Athenaeum, 88, , p. Dumser, The Architecture of Maxentius: Fedeli, Biblioteche private e pubbliche a Roma e nel mondo romano, in G. Die Inschriften von Pergamon, Berlin, Gargan, Gli umanisti e la biblioteca pubblica, in G. Gatti, Gli honores postumi a Germanico, in. PP, 5, , p.

Ghislanzoni, Scavi nelle terme Antoniniane, in NSc, 9, , p. Gigante, Philodemus in Italy. Gismondi, Foro di Augusto, in. BullCom, 90, , p. Gros, Basilica sous le Haut-Empire. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Comodo, Turin, Halkin, Les esclaves publics chez les Romains repr. Hall, Review of C. NumChron, , , p. Horsfall, The collegium poetarum, in. BICS, 23, , p. Horsfall, Empty Shelves on the Palatine,. Houston, Onesimus the Librarian,. Iacopi, Terme di Caracalla. Nota sul progetto di indagine archeologica, in A. Bietti Sestieri et al. Isager, Pliny on art and society, Odense, Johnson, The Hellenistic and Roman Library: Studies Pertaining to Their Architectural Form,.

Johnson, Bookrolls and Scribes in Oxyrhynchus, Toronto, Kinney, Spolia from the Baths of Caracalla in Sta. Maria in Trastevere, in ArtB, 68, , p. Krause et alii, Domus Tiberiana. Nuove ricerche, studi di restauro, Zurich, Kumaniecki, Cicerone e Varrone, in. La Rocca, Prima del Palazzo Senatorio: Momenti di un grande restauro a Roma, Pisa, , p.

La Rocca, La nuova immagine dei fori Imperiali. Appunti in margine agli scavi, in RM, , , p. Lauter, Porticus Metelli-Porticus Octaviae: Die baulichen Reste, in BullCom, 87, , p. Lippold, Die Historia Augusta: Frankfurt am Main, , p. Lugli, Studi topografici intorno alle antiche ville suburbane VI. Villa Adriana, in BullCom, 55, , p. Lugli, I monumenti antichi di Roma e suburbio. A traverso le regioni, Rome, Lugli, Itinerario di Roma Antica, Milan, Makowiecka, The origin and evolution of architectural form of Roman library,. Malcovati, Imperatoris Caesaris Augusti operum fragmenta, Torino, Manderscheid, Die Skulpturenausstattung der kaiserzeitlichen Thermenanlagen, Berlin, Marsden, Greek and Roman Artillery.

Technical Treatises, Oxford, Mayer, Horace Epistles Book I,. Meneghini, Il foro di Traiano. Ricostruzione architettonica e analisi strutturale, in RM,. Nash, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Nielsen, Thermae et Balnea. Nielsen, Oriental Models for Hellenistic Palaces? Olinder, Porticus Octavia in Circo Flaminio: Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome. A Study of the Monuments, Berkeley, Meneghini, in JRA, 16, , p.

Panciera, Miscellanea Epigrafica IV, in. Epigraphica, 31, , p. Parsons, The Alexandrian Library,. Paschoud, Histoire Auguste 5. Pfeiffer, The Roman library at Timgad,.

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Capodiferro, Terme di Caracalla. Geschichte und Bauten einer antiken Metropole, Darmstadt, Ritschl, Die Schriftstellerei des M. Terentius Varro, in Opuscula Philologica, 3, Leipzig, , p. Rizzo, Indagini nei fori Imperiali. Les Cohortes de Vigiles, Paris, Shear, The Campaign of , in. Hesperia, 5, , p. Skydsgaard, Varro the Scholar: Smith, The Monument of C. Julius Zoilos, Mainz-am-Rhein, Gymnasium, 88, , p. Secondo Supplemento, 1, Rome, , p. Sutherland, The Roman Imperial Coinage.

From 31 BC to AD 69, rev. Syme, The Roman Revolution, Oxford, Syme, Emperors and biography. Syme, History in Ovid, Oxford, Tucci, Where high Moneta leads her steps sublime. Cornelii Frontonis Epistulae, Leipzig, Werner, De incendiis urbis Romae aetate imperatorum, Leipzig, Williamson, Monuments of Bronze. Wiseman, Flavians on the Capitol, in. AJAH, 3, , p. Wiseman, Conspicui postes tectaque digna deo: Espace urbain et histoire, Rome, , p. Our period extends from c.

We chose Diocletian as our end point partly because no imperial library is known to have been organized after his reign, and partly because the adoption of Christianity as the religion of the Empire by Constantine, together with the increasing use of the codex. Abbreviations of journal titles follow those in American Journal of Archaeology, 90, , p. The major categories are outlined in the Contents page of Pack2 , ix.

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Some documents did make their way into public library collections, the most famous example being the edicts of Republican-era praetors in the library in the Forum of Trajan Gell. In his equivalent statement, Pliny makes it even more explicit: Pollio paid for the library in the Atrium Libertatis ex manubiis.

Although the legal status of manubiae is much discussed and still not entirely clear, it appears that structures erected with such funds automatically became public property. See on this Churchill , p. Otherwise, all imperial libraries were probably paid for by funds from the fiscus or aerarium or both.

We need not here attempt to distinguish between those two sources of public funding, which were for all practical purposes virtually indistinguishable: Lo Cascio , p. For a more detailed and far-ranging discussion of the problems involved than can be attempted here, see Dix For the evidence, see Dix , p. Most famously, perhaps, Cato reading in, and Greeks flocking to, the libraries of the younger Lucullus and of Lucullus, respectively Cic.

But note also Cic. Most of the imperial libraries were in structures that were emphatically public: Note, however, the close association of the house of Augustus and the Temple of Apollo with its library, and the library within the Domus Tiberiana both discussed below. In both of these cases, the connection of personal library to private dwelling may have persisted. Several members of the imperial family in the Julio-Claudian period were much interested in literature and so likely to have acquired substantial numbers of volumes for their own use, as we will see in considering the Apollo and Octavian libraries, and the library at the Temple of Augustus.

Tiberius famously had copies of the Greek poets Euphorion, Rhianus, and Parthenius made or purchased and deposited in the public libraries Suet. For the vast quantities of material objects that came to the emperors, see Millar , p. For libraries, an important consequence is that the collections are not assembled in accordance with any conscious plan, but are, rather, random assemblages of whatever happens to find its way to the Palace. In addition to preparations for the Parthian expedition, plans were being drawn up to divert the Tiber at the Mulvian bridge, thus uniting the Campus Martius and the Campus Vaticanus, and a law was proposed for the expansion of the city Cic.

Suetonius held the imperial post a bibliothecis and so had reason to know the history of libraries at Rome Pflaum , no. On the transfer to Rome, see Parsons , p. Perhaps better known was the library at Pergamum, which more Romans may have visited, and two of whose librarians had visited Rome: Crates of Mallos, the first librarian of the Pergamene library, visited Rome c.

In addition to the Commentarii, orations, and pamphlets like the Anticatones, Caesar wrote poetry, including Laudes Herculis, a tragedy Oedipus, and erotic verse, and two books. Klotz, RE, , s.

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Dahlmann, RE, , Suppl. It has been suggested that Varro was seeking protection from persecution by Mark Antony Dahlmann,. See Boissier , p. There does not seem to be any clear evidence yet on the arrangement and number of rooms in private libraries of the Republican period. On the real and metaphorical implications of the separation of Greek and Latin texts in these early public libraries, see Horsfall Perhaps Caesar expected Varro to donate his own library to the effort, as well.

The original Atrium Libertatis was in existence by B. It was associated with the censors, and their records were stored in it. For the history of the building itself, see LTUR, 1. Coarelli ; Purcell ; Amici For the library in the Atrium: Bibliotheca Asinii Pollionis F. For the chronology, see Shipley , p. The phrase atria Libertatis appears in Cassiod. Pollio Asinius, ut fuit acris vehementiae, sic quoque spectari monumenta sua voluit HN Plancus was consul in 42 B. Groebe, RE, , s. One anecdote records that recitations took place in the Alexandrian Library: That Octavian in 39 B.

Richardson ; Richardson , p. The land for the Forum Iulium cost over million sesterces Suet. What Caesar had in mind in 54, the project entrusted to Cicero, may in fact have come to nothing, as Purcell notes , p. See also Anderson , p. Mura Sommella ; Purcell , p. As the phrase clauso tabulario in Livy shows, we should expect to find a tabularium for documents as part of the Atrium Libertatis ; so the inscriptions CIL 6.

A Capitoline location for the Atrium Libertatis would provide an appropriate setting for the Senate of late antiquity ; 4. In 44, Caesar destroyed the temple of Pietas in the Forum Holitorium to make space for this theater, in the area where Augustus would later build the Theater of Marcellus Dio Cass. Atrium publicum and Atrium Libertatis when he identified the buildings of atrium form around the Forum at Cosa as public buildings p. For discussion of this passage, see Wiseman , p. See Jex-Blake and Sellers , p.

Pollio Asinius, ut fuit acris vehementiae, sic quoque spectari monumenta sua voluit. Several inscribed statue bases bearing the names of Greek authors were found in the excavations at Pergamum and assigned to the royal library. For a summary of the various proposed reconstructions of these rooms, see Radt , p.

On the problems with the traditional identification, see Johnson , p. Feger, RE, , Suppl. Celani suggests that Varro advised Caesar on the sculptural decoration of his Forum p. Greek men of letters in the Villa of Papyri include Epicurus, Hermarchus, Zeno, Demosthenes and Metrodorus, and about a dozen other less certainly identified philosopher or orator types Pandermalis , p.

Only one sculpture can be assigned to the library room, and that with no certainty: Syme asserted that Pollio employed the proscriptions against local rivals, as did others p. The consuldesignate Gaius Silius, who urged enforcement of the law, named Asinius Pollio among the orators who had reached the top of their profession with life and eloquence uncorrupted by taking fees. As Asinius Pollio did not take part in the conflict between Antony and Augustus, this charge would appear to be false.

The charge does suggest that Pollio was thought to have profited from the downfall of the Republic ; and if he did, the triumviral proscriptions appear a likelier occasion. Death of Gaius Asinius Gallus: The Augustan library was rebuilt under Domitian, as we will see. The Augustan library lies some seven to nine meters beneath the Domitianic portico and library, on the level of the lower terrace of the House of Augustus. See Carettoni , p. That the fire of 80 reached the Palatine is an inference from Statius Silv. For references and discussion of the fires, see Sablayrolles , p.

We have not found compelling evidence of the fire of 80 reaching the Palatine. Perhaps Ovid born 43 B. The statue before the temple: Fragments of a great statue of Apollo in Greek marble have been excavated and identified with the statue before the temple: When lightning struck a site on which Augustus planned to build his house, the haruspices declared that the land was wanted by the god, and Augustus built the temple of Apollo on the site ; the city then gave him a house at public expense on land beside the temple Dio Cass.

So Apollo chose to make his home beside Augustus. For the architectural unity of the House of Augustus and the Temple of Apollo, see Carettoni , p. It has long been recognized that Augustus developed the cult of the Palatine triad as a parallel and rival to the Capitoline triad. Temple of Apollo Suet. Augustus wrote not only works associated with his political career, like his autobiography, a biography of Drusus, a pamphlet against Brutus, and the Res Gestae, but also an exhortation to philosophy, a poem on Sicily, a book of epigrams, and a tragedy on Ajax: For the date of Epistles 1, see Mayer , p.

See Mayer , p. See Brink , p. Corbier implies that final publication will settle the issue: Tabula Hebana, line X: For the identification of the templum in quo senatus haberi solet as the Palatine library, see Castagnoli For the ancient sources on Germanicus, see Schanz , 2.

A line of columns flanks the walls ; at the center of the back wall, in front of the central pair of columns, stands another pair of columns, forming a kind of aedicula before the central niche known from the preserved remains. Caesar in bibliotheca statuam sibi posuerat habitu ac statu Apollinis ; Servius on Ecl. Augustum cui simulacrum factum est cum Apollinis cunctis insignibus ; Tac.

Maj recognized the library statue of Apollo in a relief of the altar of the Gens Augusta from Carthage. Apollo is shown seated on a throne decorated with griffins ; he holds a laurel branch in his right hand and perhaps the plectrum in his left. The cithara stands beside him and the tripod in front. The head is broken and the facial features lost. Maj also suggested that the statue of Apollo was contraposed to the statue of Roma shown on another side of the altar, on the basis of their poses, and that both were found in the Palatine library p. Pliny records an archaic bronze Athena on the Palatine HN 7.

Aulus Vitellius (Kaiserbiographien)

Mayhoff, in his Teubner edition of , excluded the words in bibliotheca and has generally been followed by subsequent editors. There was a story that Apollo was the father of Augustus Suet. We might point to these stories as evidence that Augustus was prepared to depict himself as the god Apollo ; on the other hand, such stories may have led to the discovery of resemblances to Augustus where none was intended. Octaviae porticus duae appellantur, quarum alteram, theatro Marcelli propiorem, Octavia soror Augusti fecit ;. Octavia soror Augusti defuncta, ante amisso filio Marcello cuius monimenta sunt theatrum et porticus nomine eius dicata.

Some contend that Dio in this passage confused the Porticus Octaviae with the Porticus Octavia, which Augustus rebuilt while leaving its name unchanged Mon. See Platner and Ashby , p. Porticus Octavia, Porticus Octaviae ; Richardson , p.


Porticus Octavia 1 , Porticus Octaviae. Porticus Octaviae denies the confusion, but errs in dating the recovery of the standards to 38 BCE rather than In any case, it is not impossible that Augustus financed both projects, the Porticus Octavia and the Porticus Octaviae, from the spoils of the Delmatae. Ciancio Rossetto , dates construction between 27 based on Vitr. Ciancio Rossetto says that no traces can now be identified of work from the Flavian era p. On this, see further below.

It is also possible, following the model of the Apollo library, to imagine the library of Octavia as occupying one or two halls that stood outside and opened onto the portico proper. No trace of such halls can be seen on what survives of the Marble Plan, however, nor has any trace been found under the modern city. Pliny says the statue of Cornelia was already in the Porticus Metelli, which was replaced by the Porticus Octaviae, although we may wonder how a statue of Cornelia came to be placed in a portico built by Metellus Macedonicus, an opponent of both Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus.

Degrassi suggested that this base belonged to an Augustan restoration of the statue p. See Malcovati , p. Hammond, RE, , s. Varro, for example, says that he lost his library in the proscriptions of 43 Gell. While Pompey is not known either as an author or a literary patron, he is likely to have had a library: Pompey had a freedman, Pompeius Lenaeus, translate the work on medicines into Latin Plin. We owe this reference to Professor David Whitehead. That some of the inscriptions to be seen today in this columbarium were found nearby and later attached to the walls raised doubts Coarelli , p.

Soterichus publicus Vestricianus, a bubliothece porticus Octaviae. For ordinare in the sense of organizing a new library, see Kaster , p. The order has its own logic: Only on the Palatine does someone custos, a. A third probable reference is in Mart. Videmus certe Tuscanicum Apollinem in bibliotheca Templi Augusti quinquaginta pedum a pollice, dubium aere mirabiliorem an pulchritudine. Perhaps the statue was archaic in style and thus Pliny was misled, as Gerhard Koeppel has suggested to us. Supremo natali suo [ Tiberius] Apollinem Temenitem et amplitudinis et artis eximiae, advectum Syracusis ut in bibliotheca Templi Novi poneretur, viderat per quietem affirmantem sibi non posse se ab ipso dedicari.

Augustus had brought the painting back from Alexandria. On Augustus and Apollo: Price, in CAH vol. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.

Roman historian Suetonius 40 AD — AD wrote The Twelve Caesars for the purpose not only of recording historical events but as a testament to the consequence of displays of virtue and vice. Vitellius who reigned as Roman Emperor for 8 months in 69 AD serves as a prime example of a weak man devoid of any moral sense or trace of philosophical wisdom. One wonders if such a debouched slob could ever learn from the writings of Cicero and Seneca. Below are quotes from the author coupled with my co Roman historian Suetonius 40 AD — AD wrote The Twelve Caesars for the purpose not only of recording historical events but as a testament to the consequence of displays of virtue and vice.

Below are quotes from the author coupled with my comments. But in his office in the city, he was said to pillage the temples of their gifts and ornaments, and to have exchanged brass and tin for gold and silver. The people on the outskirts of the Roman Empire would have taken great pride in their temples with all the gold and silver. And to have a Roman governor rob their temples and, to add insult to injury, replace the precious metals with cheap imitations.

The mother being willing to appoint this youth her heir, upon condition that he should be released from his father's authority, the latter discharged him accordingly; but shortly after, as was believed, murdered him, charging him with a design upon his life, and pretending that he had, from consciousness of his guilt, drank the poison he had prepared for his father. First he murders his son than falsely accuses his son of planning to murder him.

Vitellius is proclaimed the new emperor. And how did he react? For, having begun his march, he rode through every city in his route in a triumphal procession; and sailed down the rivers in ships, fitted out with the greatest elegance, and decorated with various kinds of crowns, amidst the most extravagant entertainments. Such was the want of discipline, and the licentiousness both in his family and army, that, not satisfied with the provision everywhere made for them at the public expense, they committed every kind of robbery and insult upon the inhabitants, setting slaves at liberty as they pleased; and if any dared to make resistance, they dealt blows and abuse, frequently wounds, and sometimes slaughter amongst them.

One senses Suetonius the philosopher aghast at the nasty turn of fate for the Roman people having such a brute as emperor. And to think, the Roman Emperor was considered a god. Several noblemen, his school-fellows and companions, he invited to his palace, he treated with such flattering caresses, as seemed to indicate an affection short only of admitting them to share the honors of the imperial dignity; yet he put them all to death by some base means or other. To one he gave poison with his own hand, in a cup of cold water which he called for in a fever. He scarcely spared one of all the usurers, notaries, and publicans, who had ever demanded a debt of him at Rome, or any toll or custom upon the road.

Events turned against Vitellius and he was publicly executed. Thank goodness none of these men ever wielded the unchecked power of a Roman Emperor! View all 3 comments. Bob Mycroft rated it really liked it Feb 13, Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page.

Preview — Aulus Vitellius Kaiserbiographien by Suetonius. Published January 24th by eJus first published December 13th The Lives of the Twelve Caesars 9.